Thus, in the following two years, the Catholic powers subjugated more land. The treaties did not restore peace throughout Europe, but they did create a basis for national self-determination. The tide of the war turned clearly toward France and against Spain in 1640, starting with the siege and capture of the fort at Arras. This alarmed the primarily Calvinist population of Bohemia as Ferdinand was an ardent Catholic. These results left only the imperial territories of Austria safely in Habsburg hands. The new European power would last for a hundred years before being overwhelmed by numerous enemies in the Great Northern War. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. While Sweden was under a truce with Poland, Gustav reformed the Swedish military, leading to an army that became the model for all of Europe. One of the causes of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) was the growing religious and political tension between Roman Catholics and Protestant Christians. In fact, the population of the Holy Roman Empire, the conflict’s main theatre, did not recover its prewar levels until around 60 years after the war ended. The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to choose granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant Union. Sweden received Western Pomerania, Wismar, and the Prince-Bishoprics of Bremen and Verden as hereditary fiefs, thus gaining a seat and vote in the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. In the twenty-first century, we take religious freedom for granted: if you don't like the church you attended last Sunday, try the one across the street. 1618-1648 & 1733-1763. In 1648, the Swedes (commanded by Marshal Carl Gustaf Wrangel) and the French (led by Turenne and Condé) defeated the imperial army at the Battle of Zusmarshausen, and the Spanish at Lens. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the Thirty Years’ War on the side of the Protestants to counter the Habsburgs and bring the war to an end. This was a serious blow to Protestant ambitions in the region. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. Most textbooks refer to two different series of events as the "Thirty Years' War. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire between 1618 and 1648. This success largely reversed many of the effects of their defeat at Nördlingen, albeit not without creating some tensions between Banér and Leslie. France declared war on Spain in May 1635, and on the Holy Roman Empire in August 1636, opening offensives against the Habsburgs in Germany and the Low Countries. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons As European influence spread across the globe, these Westphalian principles, especially the concept of sovereign states, became central to international law and to the prevailing world order. The spark that set off the Thirty Years War came in 1618, when the Archbishop of Prague ordered a Protestant church destroyed. Issuance of unrestricted letters of marque and reprisal to privateers was forbidden. This made him highly unpopular in Protestant Bohemia. And it was this upheaval – not military conflict per se – that took the heaviest human toll. The severity of discipline was not the only change that took place in the army. All rights reserved. However, an imperial army led by Octavio Piccolomini managed to check the Franco-Swedish army in Bavaria, though their position remained fragile. The Thirty Years’ War claimed the lives of at least 5 million people – so, yes, its grim reputation is well deserved. After the Peace of Prague, the Swedes reorganized the Royal Army and reentered the war, winning important battles against the imperial army. Swedish forces entered the Holy Roman Empire via the Duchy of Pomerania, which had served as the Swedish bridgehead since the Treaty of Stettin (1630). The king of Sweden, Gustav Adolph, had been well informed of the war between the Catholics and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire for some time, but did not get involved because of an ongoing conflict with Poland. They preferred the Protestant Frederick V, Elector of the Palatinate (successor of Frederick IV, the creator of the Protestant Union). The Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years’ War, which took place between 1630 and 1635, was a major turning point of the war, often considered to be an independent conflict. The three treaties involved were the Peace of Münster (between the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Spain), the Treaty of Münster (between the Holy Roman Emperor and France and their respective allies), and the Treaty of Osnabrück (between the Holy Roman Empire and Sweden and their respective allies). Anyone can earn Painting by Grisaille by Adrian van de Venne, 1643. After the Defenestration of Prague and the ensuing Bohemian Revolt, the Protestants warred with the Catholic League until the former were firmly defeated at the Battle of Stadtlohn in 1623. In turn, the Peace of Westphalia, through destroying imperial authority, isolated Hapsburg Spain and primed France to become the preeminent power of continental Europe under King Louis XIV. Moreover, neither of the substantial British contingents arrived in time to prevent Wallenstein’s defeat of Mansfeld’s army at the Battle of Dessau Bridge (1626) or Tilly’s victory at the Battle of Lutter (1626). Along with ending open warfare between the belligerents, the Peace of Westphalia established several important tenets and agreements: There were also several territorial adjustments brought about by the peace settlements. Along with several territorial adjustments, the terms of the Peace of Westphalia included a return to the principles in the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, in which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state. A year later, they met again in another Protestant victory, this time accompanied by the death of Tilly. Bernhard’s victory in the Battle of Compiègne pushed the Habsburg armies back towards the borders of France. In 1648, the Swedes and the French defeated the imperial army at the Battle of Zusmarshausen, and the Spanish at Lens, and later won the Battle of Prague, which became the last action of the Thirty Years’ War. In fact, almost all of the powerful countries in Europe were involved in the war. What were three results of the Thirty Years' War? With Tilly dead, Ferdinand II returned to the aid of Wallenstein and his large army. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. In some areas in Europe, especially in Germany, the Thirty Years War had a devastating impact. Services. Over the last several years a series of treaties and ceasefires were signed between France, Spain, Sweden, the Holy Roman Empire, and various Germanic states. The war can be divided into four major phases: The Bohemian Revolt, the Danish intervention, the Swedish intervention, and the French intervention. 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